Tissue Engineering:  Acellular Scaffolds and Standardization

This research field aims at optimizing scaffolds for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. Techniques such as bio-atomic force microscopy, NMR spectroscopy, electron microscopy and macromechanical tensile testing are utilised. A major objective is to further optimize acellularization protocols resulting in reduced antigenicity of tendon and tissue scaffolds, while maintaining the mechanical and structural properties of the native condition. Furthermore, mechanisms of cell integration, adhesion and differentiation in biological scaffolds are investigated.

Selected publications:

  • Scholze M, Singh A, Lozano PF, Ondruschka B, Ramezani M, Werner M, Hammer N. Utilization of 3D printing technology to facilitate and standardize soft tissue testing. Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 27;8(1):11340. 

  • Singh A, Scholze M, Hammer N. On the influence of surface coating on tissue biomechanics - effects on rat bones under routine conditions with implications for image-based deformation detection. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Oct 27;19(1):387. 

  • Gögele C, Schwarz S, Ondruschka B, Hammer N, Schulze-Tanzil G. Decellularized Iliotibial Band Recolonized with Allogenic Homotopic Fibroblasts or Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2017.


  • Hammer N, Huster D, Boldt A, Hädrich C, Koch H, Möbius R, Schulze-Tanzil G, Scheidt HA. A preliminary technical study on sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced changes of the nano-structural and macro-mechanical properties in human iliotibial tract specimens. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2016;61:164-73.

  • Schleifenbaum S, Prietzel T, Aust G, Boldt A, Fritsch S, Keil I, Koch H, Möbius R, Scheidt HA, Wagner MF, Hammer N. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues. PloS one. 2016;11(3):e0151223.

  • Hammer N, Huster D, Fritsch S, Hädrich C, Koch H, Schmidt P, Sichting F, Wagner MF, Boldt A. Do cells contribute to tendon and ligament biomechanics? PloS one. 2014;9(8):e105037.

Electron microscopy image of acellular dermis