Nerve Stimulation

Functional neuroanatomy is of vast importance to optimise protocols for deep brain stimulation or peripheral nerve stimulation. This is not only limited to the physiological stimulation pattern, but also to morphological and spatial characteristics of the structures to be stimulated. Our group has contributed to both fields refining structural anatomy, with focus on the subthalamic nucleus and the vagus nerve, for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, epilepsia and inflammatory bowel disease.

Selected publications:

  • Cakmak YO, Cotofana S, Jäger C, Morawski M, Sora MC, Werner M, Hammer N. Peri-arterial Autonomic Innervation of the Human Ear. Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 31;8(1):11469. 

  • Hammer N, Löffler S, Cakmak YO, Ondruschka B, Planitzer U, Schultz M, Winkler D, Weise D. Cervical vagus nerve morphometry and vascularity in the context of nerve stimulation - A cadaveric study. Sci Rep. 2018 May 22;8(1):7997.


  • Pelz JO, Belau E, Henn P, Hammer N, Classen J, Weise D. Sonographic evaluation of the vagus nerves: Protocol, reference values and side-to-side differences. Muscle Nerve. 2018 May;57(5):766-771.

  • Planitzer U, Hammer N, Bechmann I, Glatzner J, Löffler S, Möbius R, Tillmann BN, Weise D, Winkler D. Positional Relations of the Cervical Vagus Nerve Revisited. Neuromodulation. 2017.

  • Zwirner J, Möbius D, Bechmann I, Arendt T, Hoffmann KT, Jager C, Lobsien D, Möbius R, Planitzer U, Winkler D, Morawski M, Hammer N. Subthalamic nucleus volumes are highly consistent but decrease age-dependently-a combined magnetic resonance imaging and stereology approach in humans. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017;38(2):909-22.

  • Hammer N, Glatzner J, Feja C, Kuhne C, Meixensberger J, Planitzer U, Schleifenbaum S, Tillmann BN, Winkler D. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region. PloS one. 2015;10(2):e0118006.

Human subthalamic nucleus, magnocellular neurons